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May 27, 2021 at 5:37 pm #209geektalkKeymaster
Is Amazon’s sci-fi show “The Expanse” as scientifically accurate as people claim?
that is such attention to detailand i love it this is this is whyyou’ve got the physicist on your sidebecause this level of attention todetail is ridiculoushello and welcome to this episode ofastrophysicist reacts with medr becky smith this is the show where wehave some fun watching some sci-fi butwe also see what we might learn aboutthe laws of physicsalong the way either from you knowthings that the show creators got rightor usually for plot reasonswhen they decided to ignore some of thelaws of physics and we chat about howthingswould have been different if that wasn’tthe case now last episode i reacted tothe moviecontact and in that episode i asked youa lot to essentially put in the commentswhat you wanted to see me react to nextand an overwhelming majority of you saidthe expanse now i have to admit i didtry and get into the show a couple ofyears ago i think i watched the pilotand it justit didn’t grip me like i fell asleep init to be quite honest and then i justkind offorgot that it existed until you allremindedme of it again so i just re-watched thatpilot didn’t fall asleepand i’m about to watch season oneepisodetwo now i feel like i have to say thisbefore we begin because as a scientisti’m very aware that i have a bias goinginto thisi guess we can’t really call it anexperiment but let’s call it anexperiment becauseso many of you and so many of mycolleagues as well likekatie mac for example like have allraved about howthey think that the expanse is the mostaccuratesci-fi show currently on tv which issome high highstakes i’m kind of going into this witha little bit of confirmation bias whichisn’t what you wantso i’m going to try and be as objectiveas possiblewhile i watch and react to season oneepisode two of the expanseso you might think that like a tinypiece of debris wouldn’t have that bigof an impact on a spacecraft butactually the smaller the piece of thedebris thebigger danger they usually are to someextent anyway becausewhen they’re that small and they’retraveling that fast as well it’sessentially like a tiny bullet hittingyour spacecraft so instead of somethingthat’s much larger which might maybeleave a denglancing blow kind of thing the smallerpieces of debris actually punchstraight through it’s a massive concernfor example for the international spacestation like if thereis any uh debris that’s being trackedthat they know has had a collision andturned into lots of smaller piecesthey tend to have evacuation proceduresin process for the international spacestation because if you know a tiny pieceof debrisjust completely goes through those metalwalls and you know ruins youressentially seal that’s keeping yourastronauts alivein there it’s not exactly a good thingwhich is why debris like this can bereally bad for a spacecraftwe’re not going anywherethat was weird so she turned the enginesofflike all the power is still on becauselike you know all those computer desksand the lights are still on but they hadto turn on like theirmagnetic boots which i think like holdthem down to like the metalsurface which means that like theirartificial gravityhas now been turned off so that’ssomehow tied to the engineand not like to the power so like youknow like in passengers like the shiphas a powerfailure and they’re like you knowartificial gravity fails when she’s inthe pool and it’s like terrifyingbut here the the artificial gravity isnot tied to the power it’s tied to theengineso like i’m really intrigued now likewhatthey could have done to produceartificial gravity that would be tied totheengine because the craft was you knownot any sort of special shape it wassort of like a little command modulething not like say in the martian wherethey have that craftsort of like a circle that spins it’sthat same feeling that you get whenyou’re on a roundabout and you spinreally fast and you can feel that forcepushing you back as you’re spinningright if you can spin your craftthen you’ll have the same thing thisforce feeling like it’s pushing yououtwards and so it’s sort of likepushing you into the floor and that’show they produceartificial gravity and that would betied to the engine because i guess itwould be the engine that’s sort ofpowering it to move in a circle but thisisn’t moving in a circleso i’m intrigued i’m gonna i’m gonnakeep watching see if i can i can figureit out because i couldn’t figure it outin the pilot episode when they were onthis sort of big likebig long ship umokay i keep watching just enjoy it justenjoyit becky don’t try and overthink it he’san opa smuggler and a terroristthe secretary general he’s even thesecretary general has publicly disavowedgravity torture if you want to talk tothat belteryou put him in the tank gravity torturelike that’s kind of crazy that they’vethought to actually use that in thestory likeyes bodies would completely grow updifferently under different strengths ofgravity sofor example like martian gravity is likethe third that ofearth’s a tiny asteroid in the asteroidbelt like series would probablysomething like i don’t know top my headlike a hundredth or so of earth’sgravity if thatso your bones would have developeddifferently if you’d only everexperienced that gravity they wouldn’tbe as strong to resist that sort of likepull downwards all the timepeople would probably be taller if youbrought them to earth they wouldprobably barely be able tostand up you know even astronauts thatcome down from the international spacestation where okayzero gravity for like six months theycome back and say earth gravity is crazyto them it’s like it’s sort of likecrushing them to the ground is what itfeels like afterhaving been weightless for so long andalso like it’d be really difficult tobreathe as well if you weren’t used tothat strength of gravity becauseyou should have this air pressure thiscolumn of air pressure justcrushing down on you that would make itso sodifficult so i mean okay fair enough ourastronauts don’t necessarily noticethose kind of differences they’veprobably not grown up you know foryears and years in only that sort oflower gravitybut we do notice differences to theirbodies when they return to earth afteran extended time in space so for examplethe astronaut scott kelly spent a yearin space whereas his twinmark didn’t when he came back down toearth we could literally have like acontrolin terms of a scientific experiment toactually compare to so he actually gottaller in spacebecause you know like your spine isn’tcrushed down all the vertebrae aren’tpushed down they sort of have space toto stretch out and there’s loads ofdifferences just from spendinga year in space in in low gravity or inzero gravity is on theinternational space station so the factthat they’ve actually thought thatthrough and thought to include itis really cool like that’s nothing to dowithtechnology or you know like any aliensor anything like that you normally seein sci-fiit’s literally just pure physicsyou know who i am i’ve heard a few yesso they’ve put the belt to this personthat’s grown up on the astro belt withthis weak gravity into a tank of waterinstead of just leaving themout in the air essentially where theywould be fully subject to earth’sgravity in the water insteadthey’ve got the water to help take someof their weight right you’re morebuoyant in water you’ll notice when youget in a pool right or inin the sea you do feel naturally lighterand you can really tell that if it’s avery very salty ocean like somethinglikethe dead sea or something like that asalty body of water you obviously arevery very buoyant you know you can floatwithoutany effort so this will obviously takeaway some of those crushing effects ofthe earth’s gravityfor him and he’ll feel a lot a lotlighter to methat’s what they’re talking about inthat song that’s like i feel like anastronaut in the oceananytime i get in the sea and you feelthat much lighter you do feel like youcould be sort of like in zero gravitylike in space or at least that’s kind ofwhat i think that lyric means anywayoh carry on peace[Music]oh my god it’s like have you try andturn it off and turn it back on againgod people are dying herei love how the the door for the airlockis like anold window crank on a carsomeone hurt us someone hurt us yeahare they coming just waiting for themouse backi like that they’ve included that thatthere is actual light travel time so anymessage you sendyou know you’re gonna have to wait forthat to get there and then for the lightto travel back to you to actuallyreceive a replyas well and in the solar system you knowthat’s not going to beyears or anything like that like withsort of like interstellar light signalsbut it will beyou know minutes to hours for examplelike earth to mars travel timedepending on where earth and mars are ifthey’re like their closest approach it’sfive minutes or so or if they’re attheir furthest possible distance apartin their orbits it’s more like abouthalf an hour ish or so so that gives yousome idea in terms of you know lighttraveldistance in the solar system so i guessthey’re hoping it’s someone close bythat let’s heard this messagethey can actually come and rescue themso they should only be a couple of lightminutes away hopefully and so theyshouldn’t have to wait too long for thismessage to come backship how farit’s almost 80 000 clicks it keeps usingclicks as a distance measure and ihave not heard of clicksthe term click is derived from the wordkilometer oh okayso one click equals one kilometer sothey’re 80 000 kilometers awaythat is quite the distanceso just for context like the earth andthe moon are like about300 000 kilometers away on averageor so i think anything back you’ll tellme if i’m right if i’ve remembered thatnumber rightwhat just happened to that like hepoured that water and it didn’tpour straight out of it so yeah okay sothat must meanthat they’re spinningto get the artificial gravity onthis station so i think they’re theseriesstation so they must be spinning inwhich case the the point where you startspinning the water you know it’s notgonna fall straight down it’s gonna fallwith the spinso you you’re gonna have to likere-learn where to pour from in the sameway that likeyou learn say for example when you’replaying tennis or something like thatyou learn where to put your racketbecause you know where roughly the ballis going to be once it’s bouncedyou’re almost going to have to likerelearn where to pour your water fromto to account for the fact that it won’tfall straight downbecause your force of gravity is notcoming from straight down it’s comingfrom the fact that this wholething is spinning that issuch attention to detailand i love it this is this is why you’vegot the physicist on your side becausethislevel of attention to detail isridiculousso that massive ship that just took themaboard like that didn’t appear to bespinning at all and yet there’s stillartificial gravity aboard it solike i’m still confused like if it’s notspinning like clearly some of them arespinning to get their artificial gravitylike the series stationbut then the and some of the smallercraft but these larger craft aren’toh that’s bugging me that i can’t figureit outyou are prisoners of the marscongressional republic move and you dieyeah i mean i really enjoyed that like ican see why people like it so much justbecause there’s so much attention tophysics detail which obviously is a nerdi appreciateit’s amazing to think about how they’vebuilt this story aroundresources essentially like gravityalmost as a resource but thenlike water and air things you take forgranted on earth you know notnecessarily being readily available andit actually reminded me of somethingthat happened last week which was theperseverance missionwhich is currently on mars made oxygenout of the carbon dioxide that makes upthe majority of the martianatmosphere they made about like fivegrams of oxygen which is enough to keepyour personal life for about10 minutes or something but somewherelike marsyou know with that you know naturalresource if you want to call it thecarbon dioxide would be able to sustainthemselves to make their ownoxygen on mars as long as you put it youknow inside some sort of tentor i think they were kind of like littledomes like the eden project in carmel iguess is how i saw them in the pilotif you could fill those then you knowyou you would haveyour own way of producing oxygen fromthe natural resources and that is kindof like the first stepto humans actually putting a base thatwe could live on on mars and so that’swhy everyone got excited last week whenperseverance actually did this becauseit was thatfirst step but you can imagine like outin the asteroid belt and beyondlike those natural resources aren’tnecessarily there for you they were evenmining ice from around the the rings ofsaturnto melt into water for drinking out onseries soit’s amazing you know how many wars havebeen started over fighting basicallyover resources so it’s amazing to thinkhow they’ve sort of takenthat what is almost like a trope ofhumanity really and just completelytransplanted it intothis sort of futuristic society that’sconqueredthe solar system and this is why itreminds me of red rising by pierce brownas well because they play on that aswellin that book and yeah it’s justso so well done the gravity thing thoughis still me so i’m actuallygonna look thisup like how do they actually haveartificial gravity in the expanse likewhat do theydo who knew there was like a whole pageon my computer about artificial gravityinfictions where’s these one so there itis okay in the expanse series spacestations generate artificial gravity byrotating as dospun up hollowed out asteroids usuallyaround 0.3 g somartian gravity-ish moving ships underconstant thrust also assuming thatgravity by linearacceleration right okay that’s how theydo it so thosebig long ships we saw by constantlyacceleratingthey are producing a force that wouldcreate gravity so you would have to haveall the flaws that you’re walking on onyour shipsort of perpendicular to whateverdirection that you’re accelerating itin so i guess it would be kind of like abuilding on its side that’sthrusting through space essentially iguess you can kind ofrecreate that feeling like if you’re ina lift or elevator as americans callthem right when you when you feel it’sstarting to to push you up you feel thatforce of acceleration as the lift goesand you feel that sort of extra forceand when it decelerates you sort of getthat swooping in your stomach right asyou feel lighter all of a suddenthat’s the kind of force that they’regenerating there because we talk aboutgravity likehistorically it was described as a forcebut technically gravity is not a forcelike einstein described gravity asmassive objects curving space time andthenwe as all the objects traveling on thatcurved space-timeessentially feel an acceleration becauseof it so gravity isn’t really force it’smore of an accelerationso if you can generate an accelerationthen essentially you can generateartificial gravity as well and i lovethat that’s what the show hashas chosen to do and i feel like onlypeople who are really in the know withphysics would necessarilyget at that from the showand would just assume that it did theusual sci-fi thing of being like ehwe somehow managed to figure out how togenerate our own gravity in space don’tworry about itthese they’ve actually worried about itand that’sthat’s what makes me reallyappreciative of this show is that theywent to thoselengths to do it all right that was mereacting toseason one episode two of the expanse ifthere’sother episodes of this series that youwant me to watch if there’s other moviesortv films that are sci-fi based that youwant me to react to let me knowdown in the comments just going to pickup on a couple of things i noticed inthe comments from last episodefirst of all the martian yes 100 haveseen that filmone of my favorite films of all time andi probably couldn’t react to it becauseinstead i would just be quoting it atyou word for word i’ve seen itthat many times uh interstellar and arival were requesteda lot i have to be honest didn’t enjoythose films that much it wasspecifically the ending of both of themthat i didn’t enjoy i justcouldn’t turn my astrophysicist brainoff when i was watching interstellarspecificallyso i’ve seen them both once itechnically do a reaction to them buti’d be going into it knowing that idon’t like them so if there’s any otherfilms or tv series that you think ofthat you want me to react tolet me know maybe something i haven’tseen before as well would bereally really cool but until next timeenjoy some good sci-fiand uh if you get chance head outsideand look up at thosestars because they are as always trulyspectacularbefore we get to everybody’s favoritepart the bloopers i just want to say abig thank you to this week’s videosponsorbrilliant brilliant is a website and anapp that gets you to learnby doing which personally is the waythat i learnbest and they have a huge range ofcourses across sciencemaths and computer science that areinteractive whichi think makes them way more fun andengaging plus you can learn at your ownpace without worrying abouttests or exams and if there’s anythingyou don’t understand there’s always amuch longer explanationto help you out for example if you wantto start to learn more about gravityafter watching the expansebrilliant has a whole course tointroduce you to the fundamentalsunderpinning our understanding ofgravity from newton’s lawsall the way to einstein including awhole section ongravity as an acceleration nota force plus they even work in somepython coding to some of their courseswhich i always sayis the one thing that aspiringscientists should learn to do so if thatsounds like something you would be upforyou want to support me and my channelhead to brilliant.org forward slash drbeckythat’s d-r-b-e-c-k-y and sign upcompletelyfor free plus the first 200 people thatgo to that link will get 20off an annual premium subscription sothank you somuch to brilliant and now we’re allthose bloopersthe main guy in this kind of looks likethe darkling from shadow and bonebut that might just because i’ve justfinished shadow and bone i wish i hadn’ti’m not like breathed because it’s oversee there it kind of looks like buckybut again it could bejust because i’m like breathwith the soldiers over as welloh god just dribble water all overmyselflike astrophysicists like that’s justyour daily reminder that intelligentpeople are justnot that smart[Music]oh sorry i just got so distracted by theartificial gravity infection wikipediaplateit was so interesting i was like oh yeahlook at all these ways that it’s beenemployed in various different films andbooksanyway one outro i need to do an outroi actually think that was like maybefive minutes reading my wikipedia
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